Responding to Partner Violence
National Network on Partner Violence Against Immigrant and Visible Minority Women
Electronic Bulletin #2 - June 2005
"Diversity exists when all communities, including traditionally excluded communities
and all designated groups within communities can give voice effectively to their issues, and partake equitably in the decision-making structures that determine their lives."
Research toward equity in the professional life of immigrants: A study of nursing in the metropolis,
by Collins, E. ; A. Calliste; U. Choudhry; J. Fudge; R. Hagey; and R. Lee (1998)
In this second issue of our electronic bulletin, we provide an update on the growth of our network, explore the role of domestic violence in the increased vulnerability of homelessness among immigrant and visible minority women, and share best practices from a Muslim family safety project. In addition, this issue also highlights a research report on the experiences of frontline shelter workers, and presents summary information on relevant resources, projects and programs of interest to Network members.
The network currently has 45 registered participants. Among our members are frontline workers in shelters, immigrant settlement agencies, and non-profit organizations working with immigrant and visible minority women who experience partner violence. Through the electronic discussion forum, they share their experiences from seven cities and six provinces. To date, there are four major discussion themes in the forum, with 32 topics and a total of 102 messages exchanged among members.
To join the Network or the discussion forum, go to www.ccsd.ca/subsites/cd/forum.htm. You can also send an email to email@example.com, or call Ekuwa Smith at (613) 236-5868, ext. 231.
Key elements of the homelessness experience among immigrant and refugee women
by Ekuwa Smith
To date, few studies have examined the links between domestic violence and an increased risk of homelessness and poor health, and even fewer studies have explored the unique situation faced by immigrant and refugee women in this area (Gaetz, 2004; CERA, 2002; Novac et al., 1996). This gap in knowledge about the homelessness experience of immigrant and refugee women consequently affects on our knowledge of – or lack of knowledge – regarding effective and culturally appropriate service options available to this vulnerable population.
Below, I explore some of the main elements of this problem.
Domestic Violence: Key to Understanding Homelessness
Domestic violence has been identified as a significant contributor to homelessness among women (Neal, 2004; CERA, 2002) and as such, the experience of domestic violence is key to understanding homelessness among immigrant and refugee women. A 2004 report by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics indicates that the most frequently reported form of victimization was violence at the hands of a spouse or partner (62%), and women comprised 85% of those victims.
Within immigrant and refugee families in Canada, domestic violence compounds additional vulnerabilities such as the women's lack of official language proficiency, conditions of poverty, unemployment and underemployment, as well as frequent social isolation and what is referred to as the "sponsorship effect" (Smith, 2004). The cumulative impact on women's psychological and physical health can be severe (Gaetz, 2004; Stewart et al., 2002). While most immigrant women arrive in Canada in good health, many experience an increased risk of poor health due to settlement-related stresses and financial hardships (Stewart et al., 2002). Certainly those who are additionally subjected to domestic violence face a host of health problems, and they are at heightened risk of homelessness (Novac et al., 1996).
The effects of sponsorship on spousal and conjugal relationships are important to note. As a sponsor, a spouse has power and control over the initial immigration procedures, making their partner – most often the woman – very vulnerable to control tactics (Côté et al., 2001; NAWL, 2001). For some time now, women's groups have been sounding the alarm about the problems women face in sponsorship relationships. For example, Table Feministe francophone de concertation provincial de l'Ontario identified sponsorship as a key issue for women's equality rights almost 15 years ago (Côté et al., 2001), yet little attention has been paid to the problem. In that study, the authors noted that sponsorships were likely to create or intensify the dependency and vulnerability of women in relation to men. While certainly not all sponsorship families experience domestic violence and abuse, the sponsorship relationship can be a source of conflict, tension, coercion – and sometimes, abuse. The B.C. Institute Against Family Violence reported that immigrant women sponsored by their husbands are particularly vulnerable to abuse or intimidation, because of fears of having that sponsorship withdrawn (B.C. Institute, Spring 2004).
Poverty and Homelessness
In addition to domestic violence, poverty and the lack of affordable housing are also major contributors to homelessness among women (Callaghan et al., 2002; Buckland et al., 2001; Novac et al., 1996). The erosion of earnings and relatively high poverty rates, coupled with rising rents, have created an untenable situation for many women. As well, there is a growing concentration of poverty in Toronto, home to many immigrant women. A recent United Way study showed that Toronto experienced a significant increase in the number of "higher poverty neighbourhoods" over the past 20 years, with North York and Scarborough showing the greatest increases – going from 7 to 36 high-poverty neighbourhoods, and from 4 to 26, respectively (United Way of Greater Toronto, 2004). (Note: The term "higher poverty neighbourhoods" refers to neighbourhoods which have poverty rates of 40% or greater.)
The size of Toronto's immigrant community is a key reason behind the area's persistently high poverty rates. Almost half of Toronto's population is foreign-born, and one-third of recent immigrants to Canada (that is, those who arrived over the last 10 years) choose to settle there. The rate of family poverty among recent immigrants in the City of Toronto is about 45%, compared to an overall city poverty rate of 19%, and a national rate of 14.7%. About 30% of the immigrant family population and one-third of the visible minority family population in Toronto now live in these higher poverty neighbourhoods (United Way of Greater Toronto, 2004).
Women generally have higher poverty rates, and immigrant and visible minority women in particular face very high rates of poverty (Khosla, 2003). Women of colour, for example, are more likely to find themselves isolated in communities of poor and racialized people (Khosla, 2003; CERA, 2002; Galabuzi, 2002). Poverty rates for ethno-racial single women in Toronto range from 75% for those of Latin-American origin, to 59% among South Asian women, and 48% among those of European origin (Khosla, 2003).
The consequences of this growing economic divide are significant – people are struggling to make ends meet on meagre incomes, and housing in particular has become a critical problem. For example, while only 12.6% of all renters paid more than 30% of their income on rent in 1991, 43% of all renter households in Toronto did so in 2001 (United Way of Greater Toronto, 2004). As a result, homelessness has become a major problem. The latest Housing and Homelessness Report Card for the city shows that 71,000 households were on the municipal waiting list for affordable social housing in 2002, and 31,985 homeless individuals – including 4,779 children – stayed in a shelter at least once over the year (City of Toronto, 2003).
Some recent data show that women comprise one in four people living on the streets (Neal, 2004; CERA, 2002), but anecdotal evidence suggests that this is not representative of most women's experience of homelessness (Khosla, 2003; CERA, 2002). Many women, particularly those with children, typically do not turn to the streets for fear of losing custody of their children. And that is certainly true among immigrant and refugee women in abusive relationships. Many immigrant women living under the threat of violence will sacrifice other necessities such as food, clothing and medical needs in order to pay the rent or make mortgage payments. Those who do flee the violence tend to move into overcrowded accommodations with other family and friends – and perhaps, risk losing their child custody because of inadequate housing (Khosla, 2003; CERA, 2002). Indeed, severe overcrowding was cited as an urgent issue in neighbourhood discussions about housing for women of colour (Khosla, 2003).
Homelessness and Greater Risk of Poor Health
Housing is recognized as having a central influence on people's lives, and it is a pathway through which social and economic determinants of health can influence population health (CIHI, 2004; Bryant, 2003). Based on an extensive review of the housing literature, Bryant observed that housing disadvantage is a unique predictor of poor health outcomes. When people must direct significant resources towards housing, they have fewer resources available to secure other key determinants of health, such as food and educational resources. As well, stress associated with housing insecurity results in increased morbidity and mortality (Bryant, 2003). In a number of studies, homelessness is clearly linked to a higher incidence of negative health conditions and ailments (Bryant, 2002; Ambrosia et al., 1992; Kushner, 1998). The high burden of illness among homeless people is well documented: mental illness and addictions, chronic medical conditions, tuberculosis and HIV infection, and traumatic injuries are common within the homeless population (Cheung and Hwang, 2004).
Unfortunately, the homeless population often do not receive the health services they need to address these problems. This is particularly true for members of racialized groups (Galabuzi, 2002). Research is also starting to confirm the links among minority status, gender and poor health outcomes (Agnew, 2002 and Adams, 1995, cited in Galabuzi and Labonte, 2002). One study found that homelessness increased the risk of poor health for women, with significant effects on their mortality rates (Cheung and Hwang, 2004). This indicates that the social environment and health behaviours of homeless women are particularly severe.
Lack of Programs and Services
Studies show that immigrant women are particularly vulnerable to factors which are linked to an increased risk of homelessness – factors such as poverty, barriers to economic self-sufficiency, lack of affordable and safe housing, isolation, and family violence (Neal, 2004; Sherkin, 2004). This extreme vulnerability to homelessness is also a concern for poor health outcomes among immigrant and refugee women (CIHI, 2004; Bryant, 2003; Khosla, 2003), but their unique challenges have not been explored in detail (Neal, 2004; Sherkin, 2004; Callaghan et al., 2002; and Novac et al., 1996). In a report on women who identified themselves as being homeless, Neal notes that a clear understanding of the experiences of homeless women would have the potential to create the necessary environment for a change in their circumstances (Neal, 2004).
Studies focusing on the homelessness experience of immigrant and refugee women should provide an understanding of the intersection of personal experiences, socio-cultural structures, systemic structures, and demographic characteristics. In that way, the studies could help ensure the development of more effective approaches to deal with the increased risk of homelessness as a result of domestic violence, specifically within the new immigrant and refugee communities, and could help foster the development of adequate services to support women faced with this dilemma.
Cutbacks in social programs – particularly in the area of housing – have led to shortages of affordable housing, long waiting lists for subsidized housing, and inadequate support services for shelters and transition houses for abused women (Mosher et al., 2004; Neal, 2004; Bryant, 2003; Callaghan et al., 2002; Buckland et al., 2001). In addition, immigrant and refugee women, especially those in sponsored families, may be unfamiliar with Canadian laws and any social support or health services that many be available (Mosher et al., 2004; Neal, 2004; Smith, 2004). Key findings from a CCSD study also indicate that immigrant and refugee women are less likely to report partner abuse or to access the available health and support services (Smith, 2004). In order to reach out to these women in crisis, culturally appropriate services, including interpretation services and knowledgeable staff are essential (Mosher et al., 2004; Smith, 2004).
The Canadian Council on Social Development, with funding support from the National Homelessness Secretariat and the Wellesly Health Foundation, is conducting two research projects focused on the homelessness experience of immigrant and refugee women in Ottawa, Vancouver and Toronto. The primary objectives of these studies are: to increase knowledge about how factors such as domestic violence and abuse can heighten the risk of homelessness among immigrant and refugee women; enhance our understanding of the health risks associated with homelessness; increase knowledge about service options for this population; and, forge networks among service providers to help reduce the health inequities and improve the quality of life for new immigrant and refugee women.
The projects will involve face-to-face interviews with immigrant and refugee women who are currently experiencing homelessness, as well as focus group discussions with frontline workers, a literature review, and key informant interviews.
Expected outcomes from these two studies include the following: increased knowledge about factors related to the risk of homelessness among immigrant and refugee women, and the impact of these factors on their health and well-being; the personal engagement of this vulnerable population in discussions about these important issues; and, an enhanced capacity among community agencies to assess and adequately respond to the needs and health risks identified. As well, with the production of accessible research reports on these projects, we hope to enhance the capacity of the other communities to undertake this kind of participatory research, help foster the development of a network of community-based service providers in Ottawa, Southeast Toronto and Vancouver, and provide research-based evidence to support the development of innovative policies and programs in this area.
For more detailed information about these projects, or to participate in them, contact Ekuwa Smith at (613) 236-5868, ext 231, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Adams, D. (1995). Health Issues of Women of Colour. A Cultural Diversity Perspective. London: Sage Books.
Agnew, V. (2002). Gender, Migration and Citizenship Resources Project, Part II: A Literature Review and Bibliography on Health. Toronto: Centre for Feminist Research, York University.
Ambrosia, E.; D. Baker; C. Crowe; and K. Hardill (1992). The Street Health Report: A Study of the Health Status and Barriers to Health Care of Homeless Women and Men in the City of Toronto. Toronto: Street Health.
British Columbia Institute Against Family Violence (2004). Abuse in ethno-cultural and new Canadian communities. Newsletter, Spring 2004. www.bcifv.org/resources/newsletter/2004/spring/abuse.shtml
Bryant, T. (2003). The current state of housing in Canada as a social determinant of health. Policy Options, March, 2003, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp 52-56. Montreal, Quebec: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
Buckland, L.; A. Jackson; P. Roberts; and P. Smith. (2001). Structural and systemic factors contributing to homelessness in Canada: An analysis of research gaps and proposed research directions. Report prepared for the National Homelessness Secretariat. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.
Callaghan, M.; L. Farha; and B. Porter (2002). Women and Housing in Canada: Barriers to equality. Toronto: Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation (CERA). www.equalityrights.org/cera/docs/barriers.htm
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (2004). Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation (2002). Homelessness in Ontario: The case for a needs-based shelter supplement. Toronto: Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation. www.equalityrights.org/cera/docs/shelter.html
Canadian Institute for Health Information (2004). Housing and population health – The state of current research knowledge. Ottawa: Canadian Population Health Initiative, Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI).
Cheung, A.M. and S.W. Hwang (2004). "Risk of death among homeless women: A cohort study and review of literature," in Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 170(8), pp. 1243-7.
City of Toronto (2003). The Toronto report card on housing and homelessness. Toronto: City of Toronto. http://www.city.toronto.on.ca/homelessness/index.htm
Côté, A.; M. Kérisit; and M. Côté (2001). Sponsorship … For better or for worse: The impact of sponsorship on the equality rights of immigrant women. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada.
Gaetz, S. (2004). Understanding research on homelessness in Toronto: A literature review. Toronto: York University.
Galabuzi, G. (2002). "Social Exclusion," Paper presented at The Social Determinants of Health Across the Life-Span Conference, Toronto, November 2002.
Galabuzi, G. and R. Labonte (2002). "Social Inclusion as a Determinant of Health," Summary of papers presented at The Social Determinants of Health Across the Life-Span Conference, Toronto, November 2002. www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/phdd/overview_implications/03_inclusion.html
Khosla, P. (2003). If low income women of colour counted in Toronto. Toronto: The Community Social Planning Council of Toronto.
Kushner, C. (1998). Better Access, Better Care. A Research Paper on Health Services and Homelessness in Toronto. Toronto: Mayor's Homelessness Action Task Force, City of Toronto.
Mosher, J.; P. Evans; and M. Little (2004). Walking on Eggshells: Abused women's experiences of Ontario's welfare system. Toronto: York University.
National Association of Women and the Law (2001). Brief on the proposed immigration and refugee protection act (Bill C-11), submitted by NAWL to the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration. http://www.nawl.ca/brief-immig.htm
Neal, R. (2004). Voices: Women, poverty and homelessness in Canada. Ottawa: National Anti-Poverty Organization.
Novac, S.; J. Brown; and C. Bourbonnais (1996). No room of her own: A literature review on women and homelessness. Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.
Sherkin, S. (2004). "Community-based research on immigrant women: Contributions and Challenges," Paper presented at the Seventh National Metropolis Conference, Montreal, March 2004.
Smith, E. (2004). Nowhere to Turn?: Responding to partner violence against immigrant and visible minority women. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development.
Statistics Canada (2003). Canada's ethnocultural portrait: The changing mosaic. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Analysis Series.
Stewart, D.; A. Cheung; L. Ferris; I. Hyman; M. Cohen; and J. Williams (2002). Ontario Women's Health Status Report. Toronto: Ontario Women's Health Council.
United Way of Greater Toronto and Canadian Council on Social Development (2004). Poverty by Postal Code. Toronto: United Way of Greater Toronto.
The Muslim Family Safety Project
by Mohammed Baobaid
A collaborative community development approach to address woman abuse
by Mohammed Baobaid, Project Coordinator and Yasmin Hussain, Project Assistant
The current project came about as a result of recommendations in a study published by the author in 2001 which identified multiple barriers preventing women in the Muslim community from fully utilizing woman abuse services in London, Ontario.
The Muslim Family Safety Project is a community development initiative. Our main goal is to promote the development of religious and culturally appropriate services to secure the safety of Muslim women and children affected by woman abuse. To achieve this goal, we seek to raise awareness of this issue within the local Muslim community, and develop religious and culturally appropriate prevention and intervention strategies and supports to meet the needs of Muslim women and families affected by woman abuse. Both prevention and intervention strategies are needed in order to comprehensively address the issue of woman abuse.
Three guiding principles inform the approach of the Muslim Family Safety Project. A comprehensive community development approach to the issue requires: a collaborative and participatory framework of action; the inclusion of men in project activities; and, the integration of religious and cultural values and perspectives. These three guiding principles help us to build a network of partnerships to develop effective strategies, they reflect the importance of the experiences, values, perspectives and concerns of the Muslim community, and they actively engage community members and organizations in the process. With on-going opportunities for dialogue and participation, the Muslim Family Safety Project is fostering community ownership of the project goals and activities, and supporting a pro-active environment which recognizes woman abuse as a community responsibility.
In only one year, the Muslim Family Safety Project has already achieved some important successes. The project was officially launched on February 8, 2004 at the London Oxford Mosque, with members of the Muslim community and representatives of local anti-violence agencies participating. Over the year, a project Advisory Committee with multiple stakeholders has been established; public education activities within the Muslim community have been held, including public presentations, Friday sermons, and workshops; and, articles on woman abuse and family violence have been published in local Arabic newspapers and in newsletters of the two local mosques. In addition, a day-long workshop was held in June 2004, which brought together members of the Muslim community with local service providers to exchange knowledge and perspectives on woman abuse and develop a strategic plan for future project activities.
We are currently focusing on building capacity in both the service sector and the Muslim community to support the development of appropriate and responsive services and supports. We will be developing workshops and training opportunities for local service agencies to build cultural competence in services and develop relationships with Muslim women and families. As well, we hope to train members of the Muslim community to serve as advocates and community supporters to address the issue of woman abuse and be part of a support system for families experiencing crisis.
One of our immediate priorities is to establish a Family Support Service in the London Oxford Mosque to address the existing needs and provide individuals and families with resources and support. Ultimately, we hope to have the Muslim Family Safety Project serve as the organizing hub of supports and programming for a variety of family issues within the Muslim community. In collaboration with other local organizations, such as Changing Ways, Family Service London, Child Reach, and the Children's Aid Society, we hope to provide programming and services – such as parenting workshops, mother-child play groups, individual and family counselling, and men's education-based discussion groups – that will help build the capacity of families and promote healthy family relationships. We are currently developing protocols and guiding principles for a collaborative structure of communications and service provision.
Another important step in designing services for women and families in the Muslim community is to provide an accessible response framework to support families in crisis. Without compromising the safety of women and children at risk of abuse, our goal is to utilize the expertise of local service providers and the knowledge and resources of the Muslim Family Safety Project to develop a process of intervention that involves family members in articulating strategies of change. In addition, the response process developed will provide a more integrated system of support through longer-term procedures, in order to truly work with families to secure healthier family relationships.
As the Muslim Family Safety Project continues to grow, and community members begin to seek direct programming and services, we are keenly aware of the need to expand and strengthen our prevention and intervention work, and to continue working collaboratively and creatively with other local agencies in order to provide members of the Muslim community with appropriate and responsive supports in community settings.
For more information about this project, please contact Mohammed Baobaid at email@example.com.
Experiences of Frontline Shelter Workers in Providing Services to Immigrant Women Impacted by Family Violence
by Angie Aarora
After working in two shelters for abused women and children, I observed that the needs of immigrant women were not being effectively met, and research literature over the past 10 years indicates that immigrant women who have been abused experience difficulties utilizing community and social services. An opportunity arose to conduct a research study in this area, in affiliation with York University's Masters in Social Work Program.
The purpose of the research study was to explore the experiences of frontline shelter workers in providing support to immigrant women who are impacted by family violence. Semi-structured interviews were held with four frontline workers from shelters for abused women and children in the Southern Ontario region. Participants' training and experiences were explored, and workers were asked for recommendations to improve the delivery of shelter services to immigrant women.
Findings from the study indicate that issues around service delivery continue in trying to support immigrant women in shelters. The following summarizes the key findings:
Lack of sufficient training: None of the participants had received training specifically to assist them in working more effectively with immigrant women.
Language barriers: "I've heard co-workers say they find it too stressful talking to immigrant women because they don't understand what they're saying." (Jan, study participant)
- Loss of cultural context through use of interpreters.
- Women may present differently with interpreters present.
- Workers may misunderstand a woman's tone.
- Children are often used as interpreters, which puts them in compromising situations.
- Language barriers keep women in the shelter isolated from one another.
Cultural barriers: Just about 3% of shelter teams include immigrant women. As a result, the majority of shelter workers lack an understanding of the cultural traditions and customs of the immigrant women who are seeking help. This lack of understanding can be a barrier to the provision of effective and relevant supports for immigrant women using the shelters.
Adapting to Canadian counselling norms: "We act based on our Canadian society expectations of what counselling should be, and expect them to act according to what we think is appropriate." (Lee, study participant). This results in the shelter workers and the immigrant women entering the counselling relationship from different perspectives.
Participants discussed a range of recommendations, including the need for one-on-one support and larger shelter systems that would allow for better service delivery to immigrant women. Within shelters, there were clear needs identified for: staff to be diversified; staff to receive training in a variety of areas (such as immigration law, impact of family violence on immigrant women, etc.); and the creation of in-house facilities to better support immigrant women (for example, space devoted for religious/spiritual practices). For a full description of the recommendations, please refer to the study report.
In the six months since the study was completed, I have done outreach work to various shelters across Southern Ontario in order to disseminate the findings and raise awareness for meaningful change. Unfortunately, I have received few responses from shelters interested in hearing more about this study, which is disappointing because the important messages of the study's participants cannot be shared and discussed. When speaking with the study participants, I heard their frustration that all the changes in the world could be discussed, but nothing would be implemented without the commitment of the shelters; six months later, I can better understand their frustrations.
After speaking with and learning from the study participants, I revisited my original question: Why do barriers still exist for immigrant women using shelter services? The answer is not as clear cut as I had originally thought. While individual workers can make changes within their day-to-day work, meaningful change will not occur unless shelters for abused women and children make a commitment to invest in the well-being of marginalized women.
To receive a full copy of the study, please contact Angie at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Best Practice Guidelines: To access the Women Abuse Council of Toronto's current Best Practices Guidelines: http://www.womanabuse.ca/publications.html
If you have trouble downloading the document, or if you require further information, contact Angie at email@example.com.
Deborah Sinclair's study on backlash: A Tool Kit for Community Agencies discusses how to be culturally competent. It's available online at http://www.durhamresponsetowomanabuse.com/.
Projects and programs:
The Council of Agencies Serving South Asians (CASSA) is currently coordinating a three-year project to develop a coalition of service providers who support South Asian women and families that have been impacted by domestic violence.
The mission of the coalition is to develop a culturally and linguistically integrated, coordinated, and responsive service delivery model for pre- and post-crisis intervention and support, including rehabilitation and follow-up, for the South Asian community in the Greater Toronto Area.
The goals of this project are to:
- Develop a formalized service coalition among partner agencies;
- Develop responsive practices to service delivery;
- Conduct training for coalition members;
- Conduct on-going evaluation;
- Create a "Service Coalition Guidebook" as a reference for this and other communities;
- Host a conference to launch the Guidebook and share experiences with others working in the sector to prevent violence against women.
For more information about this innovative project, please contact Angie, the Project Coordinator, at tel.: (416) 979-8611, ext. 4308, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Canadian Council of Social Development (CCSD) will be conducting two studies focused on the homelessness experience of immigrant and visible minority women. These studies will engage research participants in three cities – Toronto, Ottawa and Vancouver. For more detailed information or to participate in these studies, contact Ekuwa Smith at (613) 236-5868, ext 231, or by e-mail at email@example.com.
If you have any questions or comments about this electronic bulletin, or about the CCSD's Cultural Diversity Program, please send them to us by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
You are also welcome to submit letters, articles, or other information for inclusion in our next electronic bulletin. We reserve the right to edit all submissions.
Editorial Board for this electronic Bulletin:
Ekuwa Smith, PhD, Ottawa
Beryl Tsang, PhD, Toronto
Shamin Sanyani, Calgary
Fatima Jaffer, Vancouver
Please note that the views expressed in this bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policies of the Canadian Council on Social Development.
CCSD's Cultural Diversity Site
Canadian Council on Social Development,
190 O'Connor Street, Suite 100,
Ottawa, Ontario, K2P 2R3
Tel: (613) 236-8977, Fax: (613) 236-2750, Web: www.ccsd.ca, Email: email@example.com